Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy
In 1953 Albert Ellis started publishing his new psychotherapy (which he called Rational Therapy, and which we now call Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy, or REBT for short). He explicitly based it on Stoic thought, but brought to it a great deal of scientific rigor and experimental psychology. It was the first Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, and still the best suited for everyday, non-clinical, use.
In explaining his key concept, Ellis quotes the Stoic teacher Epictetus, who said “it isn’t events that disturb us, but our beliefs about those events”
Read here a very comprehensive description, from a practitioner of REBT, about the detailed connections between REBT and Stoicism.